A major science story today (in the New York Times) reminds us to be cautious about what we might regard as “impossible” and capable of explanation only via a “miracle.”
Exhibit A: One of the great problems of evolution is how life’s RNA building blocks—that is, its nucleotides—could have gotten started on the primitive Earth in the first place. Creationists have often insisted that RNA molecules are so complex that they could have appeared on our planet only via direct intervention by God. But the New York Times reports today that a perhaps historic solution to this prebiotic chemical puzzle may have been found. A paper on the molecular experiments of John Sutherland, an English chemist, is scheduled to appear tommorrow in the prestigious science journal, Nature:
The spontaneous appearance of . . . [RNA] nucleotides on the primitive earth “would have been a near miracle,” two leading researchers, Gerald Joyce and Leslie Orgel, wrote in 1999. Others were so despairing that they believed some other molecule must have preceded RNA and started looking for a pre-RNA world.
The miracle seems now to have been explained. In the article in Nature, Dr. Sutherland and his colleagues Matthew W. Powner and Béatrice Gerland report that they have taken the same starting chemicals used by others but have caused them to react in a different order and in different combinations than in previous experiments. They discovered their recipe, which is far from intuitive, after 10 years of working through every possible combination of starting chemicals.
Instead of making the starting chemicals form a sugar and a base, they mixed them in a different order, in which the chemicals naturally formed a compound that is half-sugar and half-base. When another half-sugar and half-base are added, the RNA nucleotide called ribocytidine phosphate emerges.
A second nucleotide is created if ultraviolet light is shined on the mixture. Dr. Sutherland said he had not yet found natural ways to generate the other two types of nucleotides found in RNA molecules, but synthesis of the first two was thought to be harder to achieve.
In other words, a major obstacle to the natural and spontaneous generation of the building blocks of life seems not to be an obstacle afterall. And the New York Times article quotes a scientist as saying that the discovery appears to represent something historic—“one of the great advances in prebiotic chemistry”:
“It is precisely because this work opens up so many new directions for research that it will stand for years as one of the great advances in prebiotic chemistry,” Jack Szostak of the Massachusetts General Hospital wrote in a commentary in Nature, where the work is being published on Thursday.
In short, it appears that a directly intervening and miracle working God is not, in fact, necessary to the formation of RNA nucleotides. Thus science appears to be closing in yet again on another big “God of the gaps” argument used by creationists and “intelligent design” advocates to suggest that life on Earth can only be the product of an actively intervening fashioner.
This is not to say that God doesn’t exist. It is only to say that God seems not to be necessary to explain RNA nucleotides. It may be, of course, that the “God of the gaps” in our knowledge lingers and hides elsewhere, or (S)he designed the universe so that its chemistry would, under the right conditions, naturally and spontaneously go organic.
And that might make a good Whole Foods or Trader Joe’s grocery slogan: “3.8 billion years ago Earth went organic. Now how about you?”