The theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, in Volume 1 of his The Nature and Destiny of Man (1964 edition, pg. 43), critiques Freudianism and, by extension, naturalism generally:
The whole of Freudian psychology, not in what it declares but in what it implies, is really a striking proof of how remarkably spirit and nature, animal impulse and spiritual freedom, are compounded in human existence. . . . Freudianism pretends to explain all the complexities of man’s spirit in biological terms but fails to explain how biological impulses should have become transmuted into such highly complex spiritual phenomena.